When you are a part of any culture, you probably want to know the language. Now that you are walking the fitness walk, you gotta talk the fitness talk. And just think about how smart you are going to sound when you start throwing these words around all of your friends. adaptation- the ability of muscles to adjust to the work required of them; the muscles ability to adapt is why we need to continually change (especially increase) the intensity, load, or duration of exercise
aerobic- with oxygen; a type of exercise that requires a large amount of oxygen to do, like running or biking
anaerobic- without oxygen; a type of exercise that does not require a large amount of oxygen because the intensity is great and the length of time is short, like weight training (for an exception to this, see "circuit training" below)
basal (or basic) metabolic rate (BMR)- the basic amount of daily calories required for the body to function and stay alive; this amount will vary from person to person and can be reduced by VLCDs (see below); weight training can increase the BMR
behavior modification- a term used to describe the change or transformation of a person's activities and/or conduct; often used when using rewards and punishments
Behavioral Theory- an approach to understanding learning and behavior based on rewards and punishments; applied in behavior therapy and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT)
binging- sometimes spelled bingeing; overindulgence; as related to weight management, an uncontrolled indulgence in food or drink
Biological Theory- an approach to understanding behavior based on genetics, brain chemistry and brain structure
body composition- fat, lean muscle tissue, organs and blood in the human body; as related to weight management, the focus is on fat percentage vs. lean muscle mass
body mass index (BMI)- a method of measuring body fat by using a calculation including height and weight; a heuristic (shortcut) and should not be taken as the 'one and only' method for determining levels of health or the need to lose weight
bulking up- gaining muscle mass; women who participate in resistance training should not be concerned with getting too bulky or looking masculine, as this is difficult to do due to hormone differences
Choice Theory- the concept that we all have choices in everything we do
circuit training- a form of resistance training where the individual moves from one exercise to the next with little or no resting in between sets; this type of workout is good for fat burning, since it combines aerobic and anaerobic training at once; (see "aerobic" and "anaerobic" above)
Cognitive Theory- an approach to understanding learning and behavior involving thinking, reasoning, judging; applied in cognitive development, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)- a form of therapy utilizing information from cognitive and behavioral theories; the focus is on learning new ways of thinking and behaving
concentric contraction- when the muscle shortens and tension is developed
conditioning- in fitness, this is the process of training the body to be in better physical shape
crash diet- any diet used to lose weight rapidly; weight lost on these types of diets is usually water weight and/or muscle mass; these diets are usually unsafe and ineffective (in the long run), and should be avoided; also known as VLCDs (very low calorie diets)
Creation Theory- an approach to understanding behavior based on individuals being who they were created to be (being outside of this can cause dysfunction)
cross training- the act of incorporating a different sport into an athletic training (conditioning) program; used to facilitate better or quicker results or to avoid a plateau (see "muscle confusion" below)
delayed gratification- the postponing of satisfaction of pleasure until a later time: usually involves giving up one thing (such as current comfort) for something else (such as future smaller dress size)
definition- a term used to describe the appearance of muscle after enough fat has been reduced from the body: sometimes referred to as "cut," "sculpt," or "tone"
drop sets- a method of increasing strength and endurance by doing reps to failure on one set, then dropping the weight and doing reps to failure again without a rest period in between; usually three or four drop sets is recommended
eccentric contraction- when the muscle lengthens and develops tension; sometimes referred to as the negative portion of the rep
Ectomorph- thin, lean body type; often has trouble gaining fat and/or muscle
emotional eating-eating in response to (or as an attempt to avoid) emotions (anger, boredom, sadness, anxiety, loneliness, etc.)
empowerment- to give power to (including self); generally used to describe the feeling of strength that is acquired when one has gained knowledge and taken action (see "self-efficacy" below)
Endomorph- body type characterized by a soft, round shape; sometimes referred to as "apple shape"
endurance- the ability to continue despite fatigue; stamina
failure- working a muscle until it can no longer perform the movement, (a.k.a., muscle failure); thought to increase muscle gain when performed with adequate rest periods; (see "over training" and "rest and recovery" below)
fatigue- when a muscle or body can no longer perform at peak level; (a.k.a., muscle fatigue)
fitness- a healthy balance of flexibility, cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength (Note: fitness does not have to include a number on the scale)
flexibility- the greatest fixed range of motion possible; the body's ability to be agile or supple; (see "range of motion" below)
forced rep- pushing past failure on a set with the help of a spotter; this technique is used for muscle and strength gain (see "failure" above, and "rep," "set" and "spotter" below)
form- the way a body is positioned and an exercise is performed
Head, Heart, Hands- an approach to lifestyle change that incorporates the thinking, feeling and doing aspects of human existence (what we are doing here)
hip circumference- the measurement around your body at the hip bones
Humanistic Theory- an approach to understanding motivation and behavior based on the belief that each individual has a desire and potential for growth
individual response- no two people respond in the same way to the same exercise program; training programs should be continuously customized and altered to adjust to the individual; fitness is not "one size fits all"
instant gratification- immediate satisfaction or pleasure, usually irregardless of potentially negative future consequences
integrated wellness- creating a healthy balance in the domains in life: fitness, emotional health, spiritual awareness, social relatedness, educational progress and occupational success
isometric- a type of exercise where the "hard part" of the exercise is held; the engaged muscle does not go through the range of motion (ROM)
Mesomorph- body type characterized with an ability to easily gain and lose muscle and/or fat; often referred to as a "pear shape"
metabolism- the process by which the body converts food into energy; a higher metabolism is desired in weight loss and maintenance
mind-body connection- a term used to describe a way of looking at the "whole person" rather than compartmentalizing each essential component of life and wellness; see "psychoneuroimmunology" below
morbidly obese- BMI of 40 or higher (see "body mass index" above and "obesity" below)
motivation- an internal drive or force that causes us to behave or think in certain ways
muscle confusion- mixing up an exercise (especially resistance training) routine in order to keep the muscles from adapting and the body from hitting a plateau; used also to facilitate better or quicker results (see "cross training" above and "periodization" below)
negatives- an advanced type of set where, with the help of a spotter, the exerciser performs only the eccentric contraction; this type of set is used for strength and endurance gains
negative reinforcement- an unwanted outcome or result based on behavior
neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) - an approach to understanding the connection between neurological processes, language, thought patterns and repetitive behavior/s in relation to goal attainment and mood; in other words, the head, heart and hands show who we are and can determine who we become (see "psychoneuroimmunology" below)
obesity-a BMI of 30 or higher, or over 30% body fat for women, over 25% body fat for men; (see "body mass index" and "morbidly obese" above)
overcompensation- a form of over-correcting; when we are afraid that we aren't "hitting the mark," or that we might fail, we sometimes try too hard; usually used in a psychological context
over training- a condition of the body when inadequate rest is provided; can reduce weight loss and increase chance of injury
partial reps- an exercise that is performed without full range of motion (ROM); usually
periodization- changing up the exercise routine in three or four week rotations inside a bigger rotation (usually a year) in order to keep the workouts challenging and to avoid a plateau (see "cross training" and "muscle confusion" above)
plateau- a state or condition where the body is apparently not making progress on weight loss or muscle gain
positive reinforcement- a desired outcome or result based on behavior
procrastination- putting things off; a form of instant gratification
Psychodynamic Theory- an approach to understanding personality and behavior, based on Freudian thought of unconscious childhood issues
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)- the study of how we think, feel and behave effects the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) and immune system (related to "neuro-linguistic programming" above)
push-pull- a manner of defining an exercise based on pushing or pulling movements; an exercise can do push-pull exercises in straight sets, supersets, on alternating days, etc.
range of motion (ROM)- movement or flexibility around a joint; usually when performing resistance exercises, the individual will want to achieve full ROM for maximum strength training benefits
rep- "repetition;" one complete movement of an exercise (for example: taking a weight in hand, holding it at chest height, bringing it down to thigh level and back up again would be one bicep curl or one rep of a bicep curl; doing this 10 times would be 10 reps); (see "set" below)
resistance training- a form of exercise where machines, bars, dumbbells and/or and individual's body weight are used to make the muscles contract (or work); also known as weight training, weight lifting, conditioning, strength training, and body building (see "concentric contraction" and "eccentric contraction" above)
rest and recovery- an important aspect of training and weight loss; vital strength gains occur during this time; repair time
reward system- a method used with behavior modification to reward small and large goals as both incentive and positive reinforcement
sculpt- see "definition"
sedentary lifestyle- way of life characterized by lack of physical activity
self-efficacy- a belief in one's own abilities or skills needed to accomplish a task
set- a group of repetitions (reps) performed in exercise; resistance training exercises are performed in sets, such as "3 sets of 10," meaning 3 sets of 10 repetitions each, for a total of 30 repetitions; usually a "set" will be separated by a resting period (for an exception to this rule see "circuit training" and "drop sets" above, and "supersets" below)
Sociocultural Theory- an approach to understanding learning and behavior based on social and cultural issues such as ethnicity, gender, family, economic status, etc.
Solution Focused- a style of counseling or problem solving that concentrates on finding solutions rather than searching for underlying causes
specificity of training-exercising in the particular area of desired improvement (example: if you want to get better at running, run)
spot reduction- a term used to describe a method of reducing fat in specific areas of the body; not usually possible through exercise
spotter- a person (usually a fitness trainer or experienced exerciser) who watches, and helps when necessary, the person who is performing an exercise; a spotter is recommended for anyone who is pushing him- or herself to new levels, as the spotter can provide assistance so the lifter does not get stuck and/or injured
starvation mode- a term used to describe the body's state after being deprived of adequate fuel (calories) for an extended period of time; the body may lower it's own metabolism and use protein from muscles as energy rather than using stored fat; (see "VLCD" below)
straight set- lifting the same weight for all sets of an exercise
strength- physical power and energy; ability or capacity to endure stress supersets- doing two (or more) sets with no rest in between; sets can be performed on either the same body part or different body parts
talk test- a method of checking on heart rate during exercise based on the ability to carry on a conversation
tone- see "definition"
Trait Theory- an approach to understanding learning and behavior based on individual intrinsic characteristics
trigger- a stimuli that produces a response; can be internal (a thought or feeling) or external (a sight, smell, sound, etc.); can be positive or negative
visualization- the process of creating a mental picture to serve as both a motivator and a target
VLCD- very low calorie diet (see "crash diet" and "starvation mode" above)
waist circumference (WC)- the measurement around your body at the belly button
waist to hip ratio (WHR)- a number that indicates individual risk and need to lose weight based on the measurements of waist circumference and hip circumference; find a waist to hip ratio calculator here
Back to LifeStyle Guide This information should not serve as a replacement for therapy. Please visit the Can Therapy Help Me page for more information if you think you may have an eating disorder, or should require individualized help.
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